What does it mean to be African?

No body actually knows but their some thresholds that are used to determine your ethnicity, there are things that are too African and some that look western but have been blended into the African culture. Just like the way black absorbs light and heat, the same way the African race has managed to maneuver and catch up with the global scene.

The Covid19 times have proven that the African s have been going through fatal diseases like Ebola that this Chinese flue has had less impact. The irony is we are depending on vaccines made by these countries because they claim to be of international standards. They should learn from Africa.

If the disease is global and Africa is least affected why don’t they recognize our vaccines. It makes more sense because there should be a scientific reason why African is least affected.

Again I ask what does it mean to be African? Is it the color of the skin or the heritage? I believe the blacks in the diaspora are African enough to know the continent and ways in which they adapted into a new culture in the foreign countries is very admirable.   

Is it the clothes that you wear, the traditional practices you attend, the songs that you sing or the languages we speak. Apparently no one actually knows because our traditional African values are being whisked away by the too much modernity that we are getting acquainted with.

Anything traditional has been faltered to be dark magic, or witchcraft. And no one wants to openly relate with people well acquainted with traditional medicine. That’s how knowledge is being faded away. Those that know cant pass on the knowledge because the current generation knows to prefer hospital synthesized medicine than original medicine, African medicine.

So if we walk, talk, and do Whiteman things does it mean that we have lost tack of what it means to be Africa? I’ve been privileged to meet different people from international countries, Canada, USA, Germany and many more. And it seems they are most interested in African traditions than the natives themselves. Most of them fall in love with mother Africa.

One of my great teachers once told me you can never find out the reason why things are a certain way unless, you ask the question why?

And this can lead you to a chain of series of series of more questions and you will come to the same conclusion if you keep asking why.  After getting the answer the satisfaction you needed might sbe a sham. That’s why most gurus and enlightend people like Budha and Jesus spoke less but with much impact.

Research shows that the cradle of life was in Africa which means even the white people are technically of African heritage. They are too ashamed to admit that Africans beat them at their own game. We quickly camouflaged into their ways, they thought they had colonized us instead they were enlightening us more.  The rebellions were a scare that provoked peace talks because Africans had become intellectual enough to have a mature conversation. That’s why they were tricked into organizing for us elections and independence day celebrations. Uganda for example was never colonized, was only a protectorate.

We need to stop wondering what is African enough and embrace the fact that we live in the most beautiful continent in the entire world.

L.T

The future is female

LETS TALK ABOUT SEXUAL politics a comrade of mine once wrote an exciting article with regards to the same subject matter. She exhausted most of the facets with regards to it but left one crucial factor. Sexual politics has been core in African tradition since time in memorial, it is through intermarriages that peace and unity was maintained among the different tribes. This practice and norm is how new languages were formed. These languages unified and eventually created kingdoms and chiefdoms because they were so many in numbers and also demanded a say in the African political arena.

The Bachwezi Empire was so big but they did not all speak the same language, they expanded their kingdom through intermarriages.  it is only when the colonialists came and tried to annihilate the Africans but still failed. Instead we adopted their language, culture and used their technology and education to enlighten the African masses.

Even the biblical Queen Sheeba of the Kushite Empire is believed to have had sexual relations with king Solomon. And rumors among the Rastafarian community indicate that emperor Haile Selassie was a direct descendant of king Solomon. These facts can’t be proved but intermarriages have been one of the most used tools to create peace among rival families and clans.

The Bachwezi grew bigger because they mastered the art of manipulation and given the fact that most Africans were naïve, they didn’t not know that they were submitting to a greater authority.

In some African cultures visitors were given daughters and wives to have intercourse with visitors as a way of welcoming them.as a way of welcoming them. Even among the Baganda it was believed that all women belonged to the Kabaka and he could choose at will any day and time which woman he wanted to mate with. The husbands to these women were honored to share their wives with the king because it was one of the biggest achievements, loyalty to the Kabaka was key and everyone was loyal to the crown.

Sexual politics is the dirtiest game of all; many wars have been fought because of women. They have so much control over men that they don’t realize that they are nothing but puppets. Women pretend to be vulnerable and the underdogs yet research and facts have proven that they can take over male dominated positions and even perform better. They are the Alpha but will never clearly admit it because they would like to play the fool to satisfy mans ego.

Incase of a war out break women and children are Sheltered first and men are left out their to slaughter each other to the death. We know of the great Yaa Asantewaa queen of the Ashanti empire which is now known as the modern day Ghana, she conquered many territories and was the protector of the golden stool

Sun Tzu in the art of war used the king’s concubines who had known nothing but leisure their whole life. He showed the emperor that nothing was impossible and turned them into lethal warriors whom he won many battles with. Women and men are equally strong. Sun Tzu built an army of women similar to that of Gadaf. Who had femal body guards.

Women run the world with men at the forefront doing their bidding. Women have a choice to work or not, but men do not have that satisfaction, man must sweat in order to eat. The biblical Samson was also let down by a woman, enough to show you that the strength of a woman is way beyond the physic.

Many fall for the sexual trap and are meant to believe that adult hood is about sex and that’s where they get disappointed, it is about building a legacy so that when departed there is something that they can be remembered for. We are supposed to learn from our mistakes and end the cycle of poverty.

Kazini James is believed to have been killed by his mistress, another example how a woman can manipulate an entire Army General. A woman can have 10 men and convince each one of them that they are her favorite or rather no. 1 and they will all believe because men are so dump that they think with their dicks rather than their heads.

The future is female, they always say that the father is the head of the family because he is the bread giver,,, provider but this is just ceremonial. Mothers command more respect from their children yet the fathers only command fear. Mothers make it look like fathers are so serious that they do not Condon any nonsense from anyone. Many Africans will admit that they were battered less by their father but fear their father more than their mothers.

Manhood has been reduced to ones performance in bed and this has been diver stating since many people can accept the fact that they are controlled by the female. Men have so much ego that they can not come to terms either these facts they try to be shames them by using insulting words like bitch which is okay because they get to enjoy sex more with multiple partners while the male gender keeps starving.

The mans strength is in word, they speak with authority which gives them power over women. Its only empowered women who try to out compete men by doing what they do hence falling into a trap of depression and misery that men go through. They realize that men actually sweat to bring food at the table.

Was Uganda really liberated, and from what?

Happy NRM Liberation day, a special day marked in history as significant time that the National Resistence Army (NRA) took over power and ushered in a revolution that would stand the test of time and establish a unitary government that has stayed in power for over 35 years. Many always assume that NRA came to power buy Gun and established a dictatorial government. But to the contrary there were some other battalions in the north and West Nile that they had to come in good terms with.

Many critics and political analysts elaborate that this government isn’t any different from the previous, and that we are living in a rotten democracy. We therefore have to ask, what is democracy? The NRA under Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, purport that the country was in shambles, no freedom of speech, assembly, corruption, and inequality. The UPC under Milton Obote also believe that they were the first official, democratically elected authority that championed an all African political space in the republic of Uganda. Idi Amin Dada the most iconic set a democratic precedent that will be questioned and debated for generations to come. In this paper i will reference to those three major phenomenon Ugandan leaders whose reign has impacted greatly on the Ugandan democracy that we enjoy today.  

The government of the people, by the people and for the people is in basic terms considered a true democracy. But is this applicable in reality? Do we have any established democracies today that we can boost about and say that the civilization has gone far and beyond?

Just like the definition itself governance should be that of the people who adhere to the Norm, it should be instituted and established by the very subjects to this norm and this establishment should be for the benefit of the people.

In the great west we have the USA that has established a federal kind of democracy that has become a yardstick for many other democracies across the globe. To establish this the country had to go through dark times of an American Civil War. But is this democracy ideal? A leader chosen by the Electoral college, A special category of Americans who believe their say in the democratic discourse of the nation is of more value than the will of the majority.

To liberate someone from something, they should be in a state of entire need and helplessness that your assistance changes the status quo and brings nothing but relief to the distressed party.

When the NRA went into the bush, were they fighting for the people or they merely had selfish interests?

There is no way the entire battalion were fully immersed into the core beliefs of the NRA. The 10 point program could have been the transportation vessel but was the carriage big enough to fit in a gang of rebels from different social classes, a good number being illiterate.

It is very much likely that YK Museveni had less influence and authority over the NRA in the bush than after assuming power. The kind of democracy established after 1986 is unique in that it has stood the taste of time till date with a few bumps on the road most iconic being the Alice Lakwena rebellion and Joseph Konys LRA. The ADF have also tried to make sound their political intentions but regardless this government has shown firm resilience in the matter of peace and security.

At the time of our independence, the political activists at that time spearheaded by literate Ugandans in 1962 also unanimously made a political statement. Though the UNC led by Musaazi felt cheated, the coalition government of UPC and the KY managed to ferry and usher in a fully-fledged Ugandan administration.

IDI Amin dada on the other hand overthrew the constitution and established the first ever coup detat, one that would change the face of politics and democracy in Uganda. Revolutions became part of our politics.

We have experienced a good number of military coups recently, Burkina Faso being the latest. It is very important to note that revolutions are not forms of democracy.

Revolutions and democracy are distinct though commonly misunderstood. A revolution is a means through which a democracy can be established. Democracy takes many forms and is practiced differently worldwide. In the African ancient setting for instance, the elite forces were able to establish multiple empires and kingdoms. These kingdoms were overtaken by revolutions and as a result, chiefdoms alongside other new democracies were established.

Mao Zedong on a new democracy emphasized, ‘that a new society and a new state will have not only a few politics and a new economy but a new culture.”

Take a broad example of the East African community Tanzania and Kenya fully embedded Kiswahili into their national priorities and formed a new wave of East African civilization.

A good number of supposed established democracies have turned processes of electing representatives and leaders into a popularity contest. It is no longer about capacity and will but more about who is more famous. Election campaigns have metamorphosed from addressing issues to entertainment and political catch phrases. So on the current state of events in the country is the democracy that has been established a formidable one or do we have a long way to go?

Lets celebrate this day not as NRM liberation day but a day that ushered in stability and peace for over three decades leveling ground for the probability of establishing an African democracy that can work for all.

Have a beautiful week.

LT.

No doubt natural resources are the key to integration.

In the article dated, i asserted that natural resources could be the key to African integration. It is this communal acceptance of these gifts of nature that brought about civilization as we know it today. I further argued the need to harmonize the laws to allow projects that could benefit all countries that depend on that natural resource. For instance the GERD could power the entire Nile Valley.

To fully be endowed in this conversation i would suggest you read through the previous article by clicking the above link.

The 1959 treaty gives exclusive rights to only Egypt and Sudan. The treaty was gotten into shortly after the free officers seized power in Egypt after they embarked on a project to build the high dam on the Nile. Before this could be achieved an agreement had to be signed by both states of Sudan and Egypt because the project would impact/ affect populations settling along the river bank in Sudan. An estimated 170km along the Nile valley up to the contour line of 182 meter above sea level.

This agreement was significant in that both parties acquired present rights of usage of up to 48 Malians of cubic meters of water for Egypt and 4 milliards of cubic meters for Sudan measured annually. There were multiple benefits agreed by either states but one very interesting feature of the agreement was the Annexure 1 a special provision for the water loan required by the United Arab Republic. Sudan agrees to give Egypt a water loan to help it expand its agricultural projects.

At this point water a natural resource which neither of these countries have control of with regards to the source becomes a commercial commodity that is subject to be loaned at one party’s peril. This only clearly shows how Egypt is very vulnerable at the hands of the other countries that hold an upper hand with regards to the Nile and its waters. No wander they are so critical and involved in Ethiopia’s interests and projects yet international law with regards to sovereignty and interference is clear.

Egypt refused to sign the 2010 Nile treaty that was signed by the upper riparian states in 2010 (The cooperative Frame Work Agreement) a Nile Basin initiative. This was meant to replace the previous treaties that did not involve other riparian states and was only endorsed by six upstream countries namely, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Burundi. Egypt objected to specifically three articles which is ironic because article 14 A and B which they objected centers on water security. It provides that “the Nile basin countries agree to work together to ensure that all states achieve and sustain water security.”

Egypt further argued in contention that the decisions in the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) had to be made by unanimity not majority on the grounds that the upstream countries out number their downstream counter parts.

Also the provision on prior notice was objected as Egypt argued that it should be mandatory for the upstream counterparts to notify the downstream countries of any projects on the Nile so that they too can assess the impact of its outcome.

With this long line of history in treaties, agreements and conflicts about the Nile. It is clear that Egypt will do whatever it takes or can to secure its interests and will not allow to be bullied or considered an underdog in this matter. The Egyptian government carried out its investigations and recommended changing and amending dimensions of the dam. (GERD)

It is even alleged that the Egyptian government has been supporting rebel fronts to destabilize Ethiopia. Dispute over the waters and the Dam escalated earlier this year as the Sudanese leader Abdel Fattah lamented on a water war that would be very horrible if it were sparked.

On 8th July 2021 the UN Security Council held a meeting/ session discussing the dispute over the damn. Not to undermine the United Nations, its position and role in keeping world order, I find this troublesome because African issues should be resolved internally if it’s a sustainable conclusion that we seek.

International statutes were formulated to curb such situations, the Vienna convention on the law of treaties for instance covers rules with regards to third party states. 

Article 34 of the Vienna convention provides that a treaty does not create either rights or obligations for a third state without its consent. In this regard Ethiopia and Egypt are not blinded by any treaty that halts them from carrying out projects on the Nile alley located in their territory. As a matter of treaty law, this principle admits of no exceptions in the case of obligations although this is without prejudice to the principle that certain obligations stipulated in a treaty may blind third states independently as rules of customary international law.

Article 35 allows states to bind itself to a treaty through collateral agreement whereby it accepts an obligation or obligations under the treaty

Article 36 deals with the converse case of rights arising for a third state under the treaty in which case two conditions must be satisfied prima facie;

  1. The parties to the treaty must have intended the provision to accord and counter that right upon the third state or to a group of states to which it belongs on to all states.
  2. The third state must have assented thereto assent being presumed so long as the contrary is not indicated unless the treaty has provided otherwise.

Article 38 preserves the principle that rules contained in the treaty may become binding upon third states as rules of customary international law recognized as such.

National competition over shared water resources can prompt fears of water issues that can escalate into violence. In the past and in recent times it is evident that conflicts have been emerging over the Nile river delta, this is expected given the fact that over 280 million people rely n the Nile for water. And despite the rich cultural history of the Nile basin its inhabitants are ravished with challenges of poverty, instability, rapid population growth, environmental degradation, drought and famine.

The Nile covers a distance of 6,700 km over 35 degrees of latitude. It drains an area basin of about 3,350,000 sq km stretching over ten east- central and north east African countries. Since many countries benefit from its waters its only logical that there should be an understanding of how it can be utilized to benefit all. The supposed stand off or conflict between Egypt and Ethiopia is just one of the many more conflicts that can be sparked off or even escalate into a deadly war.

Integration is most definitely a solution, because with this member states will not think of individuality but rather also consider the effects of their actions on other member states. If these natural resources are shared proportionately the chances of such conflicts are low.

I would like to pause this question, what should lead or be the baseline for integration? should we wait till we politically integrate before we can enact laws that benefit our people, or should we harmonize these laws to ease economic activities, improve trade between societies and champion integration.

these natural resources play a very key role in the lives of the common man and it is to these benefits that they generally draw from them, that they can see how more alike they are than the differences they absorb with the nationality per take of the individual nations.

lets keep the fire burning.

L.T

Africa could unite in a blink of an eye.

In the previous article we asked, “Could Pan Africanism have existed before colonialism?” well if you find this theorem new i suggest you click on the link or scroll back and get an insight of what we are having for dinner today.

The african people have always had a unique societal structure and knowledge was in most places passed on orally except for those elite who managed to gather knowledge and like i said before knowledge was a privilege to the elite class. From the Nyero rock paintings to the Ethiopian writings, an area anciently known as the kingdom of Kush and ancient Nubia in Southern Sudan.

A person born of a black smith in most cases inherited the skills of the parents and became a black smith, one born of a peasant farmer in most cases ended up as a farmer too, same for one born of a medicine man and those born into the family of warriors. Those born into royalty eventually claimed authority and a piece of the empire and it was such trends that saw its collapse because the multiple kingdoms that were formed after the collapse of the empire were created by princes and princesses who resisted rule and established their very own authority.

By the time the imperialists invaded Africa, it was split into different kingdoms and societies fighting against each other over land and other small issues. They did not meet a united force like that of Ethiopia that could gather forces and repel colonial rule. They met a disorganized sub Saharan Africa still struggling to restructure itself to build a united force.

No wander the Buganda kingdom fell for the bait and believed that the British were doing their bidding by fighting and conquering its neighboring kingdoms and chiefdoms.

The colonialists took advantage of this situation and maximized their opportunities. By the time areas like Bunyoro were uniting with Acholi and Lango to stage a resistance under Omukama Kabalega and chief Awich, the British had already established strong bases and could not be repelled.

A beautiful historic event that seems to be fading away among the african youths of today.

It was then that Africans in the sub saharan region so the need to unite against one enemy as before hence the birth of the term “PAN AFRICANISM” a united force that would intern see the liberation of multiple states across the region. The plan and ideology was to liberate the entire continent and establish a united rule, unfortunately after the different states were liberated the greedy leaders assumed the notion of we have arrived Africans instead developed pride in these independent nations and the whole idea was whisked away and long forgotten.

Before the colonialists came in play Africans didn’t see the need to have such organization because the societies were generally peaceful and as mentioned earlier the elite groups that governed the societies in one way or another shared knowledge and a history. These multiple kingdoms and chiefdoms were more alike than you think, the kind of wars or conflicts that existed between the different societies were not to a big magnitude they were basic small land wrangles, cattle raids and inter tribal issues, it was never about cultural annihilation. In fact the sieges that happened and revolutions were internal all caused as a result of personal issues like the story of the spear and the bead/ Gipir and Labongo an internal fight between blood brothers that saw the collapse of the dynasty and massive migrations in the region.

So i ask again, if we could get together then, what’s halting full African integration? Is it the politics or aren’t people interested in it. How far has this ideology reached amongst the masses? How do we measure this if we don’t speak the same language with one voice, a united african voice.

L.T

Could Pan Africanism have existed before Colonialism?

Uganda Peoples Defense Forces (UPDF) forces saluting during a parade.

Pan Africanism was an attempt to create a sense of brotherhood and collaboration among all people of African decent whether they lived inside or outside Africa, most people believe and think that the concept of pan Africanism started with the struggle to decolonize Africa from the colonial/ white man rule. This is because the notion only became popular since the entire continent was facing the same problem created by a similar foreign enemy. The movement existed way back only that it did not have the title “Pan-Africanism.” Concepts and phrases like Ubuntu in South Africa that emphasized on oneness and togetherness among the indigenous Africans was already an existent methodology. Phrases in Acholi, and Lango northern Uganda like Ripe, (togetherness) Which sparked a sense of communal togetherness with all the luo consisting of multiple tribes that stretches as far as the Jaluo In kenya. Phrases like Abantu which means people and an extract of Bantu a group of the Bantu-speaking people uniting those in central and some parts of east Africa.

Uniting Africans in the sub Saharan region was not a new thing and had happened or rather attempted to happen in the past. Originally there were ancient kingdoms like the Bachwezi Empire that was so big and covered huge circumferences under a united elite rule.  The Chwezi Empire also known as the Empire Of The Sun was so massive that it was centered in the great lakes region covering areas of the modern day Uganda

African civilization was so properly structured that the different indigenous tribes were united and kept on making intermarriages to strengthen the bond and ties to the dynasty. This was around 900AD and 1300AD but as time went on more Africans got enlightened and the small elite ruling class could not contain an eminent revolution hence the collapse of empire and creation of multiple kingdoms across the region. The current Buganda, Bunyoro, Toro, Rwanda, Busoga, Nandi, Acholi, Burindi, Malawi and many more.

Knowledge in ancient Africa was a privilege for only a few; a small class of people was lucky to have access to this and with knowledge came power. It made them invincible among the locals and walked/ marched on the face of the Earth as gods since majority were peasant farmers. People even believed as ancient myth dictates that the Bachwezi were not humans but gods who did not die but disappeared from the face of the earth. The way African civilization was structured then, the people had many mystic beliefs and it was the fear of such beliefs that made them fall in line. These wise men who championed these beliefs were so influential that they could command the masses to do anything. For instance,

the Maji Maji rebellion in Kenya, a prophet kinjictire managed to convince the masses and championed a resistance that would go down in history as the most disastrous against the British rule in east Africa.

The people were told and believed that by anointing them with sorghum oil and water their bodies would be bullet proof many believed this and then there was the massacre of the African people. The elite class had the capacity to manipulate and control the people in an unprecedented way.

If the masses could unite then under such backward beliefs, imagine what an educated African race is capable of. It is no secret that the new breed of African nationalists are hungry for economic prosperity. The ACFTA has opened doors for innovation and its up to we the young generation to seize and take charge of these opportunities.

(To Be Continued…)

L.T

Natural resources could be the key to African integration.

Harmonizing continental regulations with regards to the exploitation of Africa’s natural resources may be the most viable step towards African integration. When we talk of African integration, many think of the entire continent under one political front with unified security forces. This is the final step of integration, and the simplest. How to get there amidst many social, political, cultural and economic differences is the continental concern.

Africa has many natural resources that are shared amongst different countries for the wellbeing of their people. A case in point in East Africa lake victoria, shared by three different countries (Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania)

Natural resources have no limits with regards to boarders or politics, the imaginary boarders or boundaries drawn by our colonial masters have created a big problem creating a rift between neighbors, clans and tribes that find themselves in the cross roads.

Man is one with nature and cannot be separated from it. It’s from this strong bond that the genesis of the do’s and don’ts, what we can eat and cannot, taboos, totems, and all kinds of cultural practices that in turn evolved into law as we recognize it today.

Civilizations and societies grew as a result of shared basic needs and in this case, natural resources like rivers, swamps, forests, mountains among others which different sects, clans or tribes unanimously utilized. The exploitation of these resources has always been a question of controversy in the event that such activities have a direct impact on the neighbors.

The Nile River for instance is the cradle of civilization and a common heritage of mankind. It’s the longest river  in the world with its tributaries in over 11 countries/independent states. The governing principle in regards to a common heritage is that no state shall claim or exercise sovereignty or sovereign rights over any parts of res communis or its resource nor shall any state or natural or political person appropriate it. No such claim or exercise of sovereignty shall be recognized in international law.

I strongly believe you cannot talk integration without harmonizing the laws that make economic, social and political activities easy to navigate. Lets take an example of The Great Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD), it is a very big project with a planned installed capacity of 6.45gigawatts. It will be if completed the largest hydro-electric plant in Africa and seventh in the world. Filling its reservoir began in July 2020 and will take four to seven years to fill it with water.

Egypt being located 2500 kilometers downstream the reservoir is opposed to its construction arguing that it will reduce the amount of the water available from the Nile. This is a point of contention because Egypt’s entire civilization emerged and depends on the Nile. It has been argued by many scholars that the Nile is its lifeline and without it, the entire civilization could collapse.

With the knowledge of the above, Egyptian leaders historically sought it wise to engage into agreements with other riparian states in order to clearly cement their interests and protect its people from eminent disaster. These have been the 1929 and 1959 treaties aimed at securing Egyptian interests. These treaties however have loopholes, one majorly being that all riparian states that are found in the Nile delta were never involved in these crucial negotiations.

The 1929 treaty was concluded between Egypt and its colonial master Britain without and to the total exclusion of the riparian states.

The notable salient features of the 1929 treaty were;

  1. The Egypt and (Anglo- Egyptian )Sudanese utilize 48 and 4 billion cubic meters (BCM) of the flow per year respectively, that is 92.3% for Egypt and 7.7% (for Sudan) for the total utilizable flow precedence to the so called historic/ acquired rights.
  2. That the flow of the Nile between January 20 to july15 (the dry season) be reserved for Egypt
  3. That Egypt reserves the right to monitor the Nile flow in the upstream countries.
  4. That Egypt assumes the right to undertake Nile river related projects without the consent of upper riparian states.
  5. That Egypt assumes the right to vet and construction projects that would affect her interests adversely. This was captured in paragraph 27 which stipulates in part that save with provisions agreement of the Egyptian government no irrigation or power works or measures are to be constructed r taken on the river Nile or its banks on the lakes from which its flows.

In my own analysis and legal understanding, it is from such provisions and authority that Egypt feels the need to VET and interfere with the project being carried out by Ethiopia.

In addition to that, the 1959 treaty gives exclusive rights to only Egypt and Sudan. The treaty was gotten into shortly after the free officers seized power in Egypt after they embarked on a project to build the high dam on the Nile. Before this could be achieved an agreement had to be signed by both states of Sudan and Egypt because the project would impact/ affect populations settling along the riverbank in Sudan. An estimated170km along the Nile valley up to the contour line of 182 meter above sea level.

A treaty according to law only binds parties to it, and this is why we have to harmonize regulations with regards to natural resources because it’s crucial in championing development and maintaining peace among the masses.

TO BE CONTINUED…

L.T

We therefore need to understand why it is crucial that states enter into agreements that will help protect the common person on the ground

Should we really hit the breaks?

Today we continue from where we halted the discussions yesterday, Africa faces a much grave problem because the resources we have and intend to exploit are also being eyed by these super power nations who literally uncover control the state of politics within the different regions. To fully understand this article i would suggest you take a read on the article published yesterday, then walk with me through a revolutionary journey set to change the face of Africa as we know it.

As we stated clearly before, Developed nations are fighting against high carbon emissions yet we (Uganda) seem to be headed towards a direction they are fighting so hard to get out of.

The first feature required of a powered down society would be reasonable levels of well being even though in terms of normal economic measures most people would be poorer there is difficulty in measuring hidden wealth of nations. With such forms of wealth not being effectively captured by levels or growth of a society’s GDP

Societies should be measured in terms of quality of life and not only in terms of GDP or GDP per person.  Multiple research has shown that after a level of income in a society has been achieved then increasing personal incomes do not necessarily turn them into more well being. Their demands and needs in fact seem to increase depending on their desires.

Many existing goods and services are wasted as unnecessary products, in fact excess of these goods and services may build resentment to those who can not access it. More goods and services which most people cannot acquire produce resentment and less wellbeing.

Take an example of oil prices they are sky rocketing each day yet they are produced in abundance in the oil producing countries. These prices are not even determined by the nations that produce them. Nigeria for instance produces 1,938,542.73 barrels of oil per day (as of 2016 ranking) and currently estimated at over 2million barrels per day yet it’s citizens cannot afford fuel, even basic paraffin for the poor masses to light up their houses in the dark are a problem.

Society as a whole is weaker if there is inequality. There is always more resentment felt by the deprived against the richer people. Such resentment is what greedy political power hungry individuals feed on to generate riots in all parts of the world. This cuts across all the way from Europe USA and back to Africa, straight from the Black Lives matter movement in USA, Neoliberal riots in the UK 2011, Sars in Nigeria and even walk to work in Uganda which was solely sparked because of the rise of fuel prices and inflation.

It is quite easy to lure a society that has so much imbalance and inequality into such destructive behaviors because of the strong resentment they feel towards their counterparts. It is on the basis of inequality that we had the first ever French revolution that created the political landscape as we understand it today, this made us witness multiple other revolutions hence creating the new world order.

A materialistic culture has fostered greed among young people, this especially to because of the gap between what is represented in the media, social media and all communications power houses as good life for young people vis a vis what they can actually acquire/afford. The reality of life and what we perceive it to be.

The irony of the life we live today.          

The current media endlessly circulates images of the good mobile digital life and stress the essential importance of global brands, products and services to that life. The lavish lives that we young people so admire in most cases involve high carbon emissions and are dangerous to the environment.

Low carbon innovations are needed as we move the direction of oil explorations. Oil is crucial to the development of the nation but it also comes with not only economic social and political side effects but it also processes and has environmental effects.

To combat this and avoid destroying the natural resources/ environment that supports our survival, strategic plans have to be undertaken and this should not only be left to the section of persons but rather the whole society should participate in this.

Even those that consume these products (oil) should actually even participate Jukka Gronow notes “ consumer is as much the heroic innovator as the entrepreneur” it is necessary that the innovators invent low carbon localized goods and services with the state/ government providing pre conditions for starting up and scaling up.

Vaxjo a Swedish city ambitiously developed a fossil fuel free future and national plan landed in 2005 aimed at making Sweden an oil free society. It is now half way to becoming Fossil Fuel Free. an incredible 51% of its energy comes from sources such as Bio mass, renewable electricity, and solar. Over the last decade emissions have been reduced by 30% per person to 3.232 tons of CO2 annually well below European and world ratings. The city is on its way to become the world’s first fossil free city.

They are on their way of achieving this without sacrificing lifestyle, comfort and economic growth, petrol is still available but carbon emissions are heavily taxed. Their plan is to reach zero carbon emissions in the future. They are investing in bio energy combined heating and power systems.

This is the direction developed societies are headed; it’s important that we take note of such developments and rethink the steps that we are taking towards development.

The first editions of the Kira Motors in Uganda were electric and solar vehicles yet we insist on mass production of diesel run vehicles. Is this the right direction towards technological revolution?   

Should we hit the brakes or reverse the gear?

L.T

Futurist Richard Buck minister fuller said that “you can never change things by fighting the existing reality. To change something, build a new model that makes the existing model absolute.”

Society is measured in terms of quality of life of prosperity but not growth.

It is not so much reverse gear needed but a different gear altogether.

The probability of a united Africa is One in five and it seems unlikely to gain fraction except in relatively equal societies of which they are depressingly few or even no-existent in this world.

So how do we fight the forces of indifference and build a unique new world order, with Africans at the forefront.

There is only one way to the top which is up, and only one way to the finish line and that’s forward. So as we drive this vehicle towards integration we have to ideally understand the social, economic, and environmental dynamics involved.

Should Africa halt?

SHOULD WE HIT THE BREAKS?

It seems that a United Africa is a dream and given the recent pandemic outbreak everything appears to be on a standstill. Schools have been closed, transport halted, economic transactions have been stalled. Most of the economies that are operational are running based on a digital economy.

Are we crippled?

Africa is like a man who falls and cannot get up on his own but has to wait for someone to help him get up and walk. Once again I ask, are we crippled? This expression might be taken as an insult to the disabled using their condition that society deems to be an unfortunate condition.

We don’t need to impress anyone. That’s the biggest problem Africa faces, that even after decades after “colonization” we see the need to impress our former colonial masters. Any internal conflicts that we face and we look up to them to resolve our issues. A clear example is the international criminal court where puppet nations have been sending ex African leaders and those that commit atrocities within our boundaries.

We have been set free yet we chose to still live in cages, it’s high time we embrace our own capacities and take charge of what happens in our homes and back yard. When given the chance to make our own rules and build our own systems, what did we do?

We adopted their laws and apply them vigorously on a population and mass that is torn between their cultural norms and an alien culture. 

For instance it took about 50 years in Europe to bring about significant reductions in tobacco smoking even though scientific evidence for its consequences was unambiguous. Those with businesses and had interests did their utmost to conceal and misinterpret their links between tobacco smoking and increase risks of lung cancer. Even though they had known for some time that there was such a relationship.

We as Uganda are currently faced with an opportunity set to boost our economy, the oil exploration in the western part of the country has the capacity to rewrite East Africa’s position and define economics in a way like never before. We should also keep in mind the environmental impacts of such an economic activity, besides carrying out an environmental impact assessment, how feasible and practical is it? Developed countries are fighting against high carbon emissions, how can manage to cut through the checks and balances?

Developed nations are fighting against high carbon emissions yet we seem to be headed towards a direction they are fighting so hard to get out of… (To be continued..)

So many questions unanswered yet so many challenges ahead.

Lets keep up the spirit, and a dream of a united Africa will manifest.

Thomas Lamony

Writer, Lawyer, Director Legal Affairs/ Mwangaza African Revolutionary Study groups center. APS/Special Duties -State House Uganda